Hacker, artist, maker that works for the Museum of Science in Boston.
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Simulate PIC and Arduino/AVR Designs with no Cloud

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I’ve always appreciated simulation tools. Sure, there’s no substitute for actually building a circuit but it sure is handy if you can fix a lot of easy problems before you start soldering and making PCBs. I’ve done quite a few posts on LTSpice and I’m also a big fan of the Falstad simulator in the browser. However, both of those don’t do a lot for you if a microcontroller is a major part of your design. I recently found an open source project called Simulide that has a few issues but does a credible job of mixed simulation. It allows you to simulate analog circuits, LCDs, stepper and servo motors and can include programmable PIC or AVR (including Arduino) processors in your simulation.

The software is available for Windows or Linux and the AVR/Arduino emulation is built in. For the PIC on Linux, you need an external software simulator that you can easily install. This is provided with the Windows version. You can see one of several videos available about an older release of the tool below. There is also a window that can compile your Arduino code and even debug it, although that almost always crashed for me after a few minutes of working. As you can see in the image above, though, it is capable of running some pretty serious Arduino code as long as you aren’t debugging.

Looks and sounds exciting, right? It is, but be sure to save often. Under Linux, it seems to crash pretty frequently even if you aren’t debugging. It also suffers from other minor issues like sometimes forgetting how to move components. Saving, closing the application, and reopening it seems to fix that. Plus, we assume they will squash bugs as they are reported. One of my major hangs was solved by removing the default (old) Arduino IDE and making sure the most recent was on the path. But the crashing was frequent and seemed more or less random. It seemed that I most often had crashes on Linux with occasional freezes but on Windows it would freeze but not totally crash.

Basic Operation

The basic operation is pretty much what you’d expect. The window is broadly divided into three panes. The leftmost pane shows, by default, a palette of components. You can use the vertical tab strip on the left to also pick a memory viewer, a property inspector, or a file explorer.

The central pane is where you can draw your circuit and it looks like a yellow piece of engineering paper with a grid. Along the top are file buttons that do things like save and load files.

You’ll see a similar row of buttons above the rightmost pane. This is a code editor and debugging window that can interface with the Arduino IDE. It looks like it can also interface with GCBasic for the PIC, although I didn’t try that.

You drag components from the left onto the circuit. Wiring isn’t a distinct operation. You just let the mouse float over the connection until the cursor makes a cross. Click and then drag to the connection point and click again. Sometimes the program forgets to make the cross cursor and then I’ve had to save and restart.

Most of the components are just what you think they are. There are some fun ones including a keypad, an LED matrix, text and graphic LCDs, and even stepper and servo motors. You’ll also find several logic functions, 7400-series ICs, and there are annotation tools like text and boxes at the very bottom. You can right click on a category and hide components you never want to see.

At the top, you can add a voltmeter, an ammeter, or an oscilloscope to your circuit. The oscilloscope isn’t that useful because it is small. What you really want to do is use a probe. This just shows the voltage at some point but you can right click on it and add the probe to the plotter which appears at the bottom of the screen. This is a much more useful scope option.

There are a few quirks with the components. The voltage source has a push button that defaults to off. You have to remember to turn it on or things won’t work well. The potentiometers were particularly frustrating. The videos of older versions show a nice little potentiometer knob and that appears on my Windows laptop, too. On Linux the potentiometer (and the oscilloscope controls) look like a little tiny joystick and it is very difficult to set a value. It is easier to right click and select properties and adjust the value there. Just note that the value won’t change until you leave the field.

Microcontroller Features

If that’s all there was to it, you’d be better off using any of a number of simulators that we’ve talked about before. But the big draw here is being able to plop a microcontroller down in your circuit. The system provides PIC and AVR CPUs that are supported by the simulator code it uses. There’s also four variants of Arduinos: the Uno, Nano, Duemilanove, and the Leonardo.

You can use the built-in Arduino IDE — just make sure you have the real Arduino software on your path and it is a recent version. Also, unlike the real IDE, it appears you must save your file before a download or debug will notice the changes. In other words, if you make a change and download, you’ll compile the code before the change if you didn’t save the file first. You don’t have to use the built-in IDE. You can simply right click on the processor and upload a hex file. Recent Arduino IDEs have an option to export a hex file, and that works with no problem.

When you have a CPU in your design, you can right click it and open a serial monitor port which shows virtual serial output at the bottom of the screen and lets you provide input.

The debugging mode is simple but works until it crashes. Even without debugging, there is an option to the left of the screen to watch memory locations and registers inside the CPU.

Overall, the Arduino simulation seemed to work quite well. Connecting to the Uno pins was a little challenging at certain scales and I accidentally wired to the wrong pin on more than one occasion. One thing I found odd is that you don’t need to wire the voltage to the Arduino. It is powered on even if you don’t connect it.

Besides the crashing, the other issue I had was with the simulation speed which was rather slow. There’s a meter at the top of the screen that shows how slow the simulation is compared to real-time and mine was very low (10% or so) most of the time. There is a help topic explaining that this depends if you have certain circuit elements and ways to improve the run time, but it wasn’t bad enough that I bothered to explore it.

My first thought was that it would be difficult to handle a circuit with multiple CPUs in it since the debugging and serial monitors are all set up for a single CPU. However, as the video below shows, you can run multiple instances of the program and connect them via a serial port connection. The only issue would be if you had a circuit where both CPUs were interfacing with interrelated circuitry (for example, an op amp summing two signals, one from each CPU).

A Simple Example

As an experiment, I created a simple circuit that uses an Uno. It generates two PWM signals, integrates them with an RC circuit and then either drives a load or drives a load through a bipolar emitter follower. A pot lets you set the PWM percentages which are compliments of each other (that is, when one is at 10% the other is at 90%). Here’s the circuit:

Along with the very simple code:

int v;

const int potpin=0;
const int led0=5;
const int led1=6;

void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
Serial.println("Here we go!");
}

void loop() {
int v=analogRead(potpin)/4;
Serial.println(v);
analogWrite(led0,v);
analogWrite(led1,255-v);
delay(250);
}

Note that if the PWM output driving the transistor drops below 0.7V or so, the transistor will shut off. I deliberately didn’t design around that because I wanted to see how the simulator would react. It correctly models this behavior.

There’s really no point to this other than I wanted something that would work out the analog circuit simulation as well as the Arduino. You can download all the files from GitHub, including the hex file if you want to skip the compile step.

If you use the built-in IDE on the right side of the screen, then things are very simple. You just download your code. If you build your own hex file, just right click on the Arduino and you’ll find an option to load a hex file. It appears to remember the hex file, so if you run a simulation again later, you don’t have to repeat that step unless you moved the hex file.

However, the IDE doesn’t remember settings for the plotter, the voltage switches, or the serial terminal. You’ll especially want to be sure the 5V power switch above the transistor is on or that part of the circuit won’t operate correctly. You can right click on the Arduino to open the serial monitor and right click on the probes to bring back the plotter pane.

The red power switch at the top of the window will start your simulation. The screenshots above show close-ups of the plot pane and serial monitor.

Lessons Learned

This could be a really great tool if it would not crash so much. In all fairness, that could have something to do with my PC, but I don’t think that fully accounts for all of them. However, the software is still in pretty early development, so perhaps it will get better. There are a lot of fit and finish problems, too. For example, on my large monitor, many of the fonts were too large for their containers, which isn’t all that unusual.

The user interface seemed a little clunky, especially when you had to manipulate potentiometers and switches. Also, remember you can’t right-click on the controls but must click on the underlying component. In other words, the pot looks like a knob on top of a resistor. Right clicks need to go on the resistor part, not the knob. I also was a little put off that you can’t enter multiplier suffixes directly in component values. That is, you can’t enter a resistor value as 1K. You can enter 1000 or you can enter 1 and then change the units in a separate field to Kohms. But that’s not a big deal. You can get used to all of that if it would quit crashing.

I really wanted the debugging feature to work. While you can debug directly with simuavr or other tools, you can’t easily simulate all your I/O devices like you can with this tool. I’m hoping that becomes more robust in the future. Under Linux it would work for a bit and crash. On Windows, I never got it to work.

As I always say, though, simulation is great, but the real world often leads to surprises that don’t show up in simulation. Still, a simulation can help you clear up a host of problems before you commit to heating up the soldering iron or pulling out the breadboard. Simuide has the potential to be a great tool for simulating the kind of designs we see most on Hackaday.

If you want to explore other simulation options, we’ve talked a lot about LTSpice, including our Circuit VR series. There’s also the excellent browser-based Falstad simulator.





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jprodgers
18 hours ago
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Much like the article, I found that it crashes too frequently to be useful. It crapped the bed just trying to get a Schmidt trigger inverting circuit to work, but it eventually did. Has potential, so I'll keep an eye on it, but it's a ways away from useful quite yet.
Somerville, MA
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Braille on a Tablet Computer

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Signing up for college classes can be intimidating, from tuition, textbook requirements, to finding an engaging professor. Imagine signing up online, but you cannot use your monitor. We wager that roughly ninety-nine percent of the hackers reading this article have it displayed on a tablet, phone, or computer monitor. Conversely, “Only one percent of published books is available in Braille,” according to [Kristina Tsvetanova] who has created a hybrid tablet computer with a Braille display next to a touch-screen tablet running Android. The tablet accepts voice commands for launching apps, a feature baked right into Android. The idea came to her after helping a blind classmate sign up for classes.

Details on the mechanism are not clear, but they are calling it smart liquid, so it may be safe to assume hydraulic valves control the raised dots, which they call “tixels”. A rendering of the tablet can be seen below the break. The ability to create a full page of braille cells suggest they have made the technology pretty compact. We have seen Braille written on PCBs, a refreshable display based on vibrator motors, and a nicely sized Braille keyboard that can fit on the back of a mobile phone.





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jprodgers
20 hours ago
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I wish they had any videos of the device in action instead of marketing stuff, but it looks like they may have an actual product.
Somerville, MA
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Review: Mega-hit boardgame Scythe goes digital on Steam

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Article intro image

Enlarge (credit: Asmodee Digital)

Scythe is a heavy German-style board game that combines worker placement, area control, resource management, a little combat, and a point salad scoring with a setup so ornate that Alice Waters wanted to put it on her menu (read our original review of the game to see for yourself.) Scythe has been among the top-rated games on BoardGameGeek since its 2016 release thanks to an extremely well-balanced design, very little randomness, and the use of many different mechanics in a single game. But it comes with a steep learning curve—both for rules and strategy—which makes the game ideal for a digital adaptation.

Asmodee Digital, which has established itself as the premier developer for high-end ports of board games, has just released its version of Scythe: Digital Edition to Steam (for both Mac and Windows), and it is unsurprisingly superb. Scythe can easily take two-plus hours on tableto, but it's now accessible to more players through an excellent tutorial and a clever UI that keeps the screen clear while ensuring that key information is available to players.

That's important because Scythe requires you to track a tremendous number of things: you’re producing and spending four different resources, collecting three forms of currency (gold, power, and popularity), and trying to achieve six out of about a dozen possible objectives (such as getting to eight workers, building all four buildings, or reaching 16 power within a turn). The digital Scythe handles all of this accounting for you, keeping track of what you can do, what you still have left to do, and oh by the way did you forget you were entitled to this? There’s nothing intuitive at all about the rules of Scythe, and it’s the kind of game that will likely keep even experienced players peeking at the rule book. The app handles all of that quite smoothly, offering mouse-over prompts so you know what each option does and a series of questions and confirmation dialogs for each set of actions you can take.

In Scythe, you get to choose one action per turn, though if you have the right resources, you may get to take an associated second action. With rare exceptions, you can’t use the same action on consecutive turns, but you can plan your actions out several turns in advance as you build out your area of the map to achieve certain objectives. There’s limited interaction with other players—combat exists, and one objective is to win two battles, but fighting is neither necessary to win the game nor terribly satisfying—so long-term strategy is both possible and essential. As the game progresses, if you’ve planned well, your actions become more powerful, so you will produce more resources at one time or gain more bonuses. You might take half the game to achieve your first objective (shown as a star on your player icon in the lower right of the screen) but then find yourself hitting a new one every few turns after that.

Once any player has achieved six objectives, the game ends and the scoring begins. Players earn points for coins collected, areas controlled on the map, and star tokens placed for achievements. After this, each player earns a multiplier based on their final “popularity” score. Thus, you can be the first player to achieve six objectives but still not win the game, so delaying that end-game trigger may sometimes be to your advantage.

Your personal player mat has two rows of four action spaces, although some of those spaces offer you a choice of two different actions. For example, the top left space may give you the right to move two units one space each or acquire one gold coin; then, if you have the resources already, you can spend two oil to upgrade one space somewhere on your mat—such as increasing your movement ability from two units to three. The game will prompt you to accept each decision and remind you if you forget to take an action. If you lack the resources to take a bottom-row action, the game makes it clear on the bottom of the screen rather than forcing you to count your oil or figure out why the action isn’t available. This is particularly important for certain actions that provide a one-time bonus that isn’t immediately obvious from the digital player map. (I regularly try to End Turn too early because I forget I'm supposed to get that bonus.)

The on-screen display manages to keep the information you need within one click, while not cluttering the center of the screen where the map (and thus the action) lies. You can expand the top bar to the right to see your counts in all of those categories I mentioned above as well as how far you've progressed on some of the objectives, and you can expand it down into the main area of the screen to see where opposing players stand in the same areas. You can open several text screens on the left side of the screen that provide information, like a list of all possible objectives you can achieve or the two private objectives you were dealt for this game. The developers also did an excellent job of making sure that highlighted areas on the map or choices on the player mat are sufficiently distinguished by their colors. You can also get a preview of the final score at any time to see if you’re ready to end the game or if you need to buy more popularity to boost your multiplier.

The Scythe: Digital Edition trailer

The Steam version of Scythe has run smoothly for me for months, even as Asmodee Digital has pushed upgrades to the Early Access version I was playing. The tutorial is long but entirely necessary, and I felt completely prepared to at least play the game after finishing it (though it took several games against the Easy AI players to get the hang of the planning process). There are still a few areas where something happens on the screen that isn’t clear—for example, playing as the Crimea faction, I had the special ability to use a two-power combat card in lieu of a resource, but I didn’t realize that was happening until after the game ended and I looked it up. Experienced Scythe players will likely know these rules quirks, but new players could use a more direct on-screen explanation.

That's a minor quibble for an app of this complexity. I’m not a huge fan of the tabletop version of Scythe, yet I found the app consistently enjoyable, even when I was still learning the game and getting my clock cleaned regularly by the easy opponents. That joy is in part that’s because of how quickly this game plays; entire games against three bots take just half an hour.

It’s on the expensive side for a board game port at $19.99, but the tabletop version costs $80 and the digital version packs more into its design than just about any other board game app I’ve played. Scythe: Digital Edition sets a new standard for porting complex Euro-style cardboard titles to the digital realm. With some other heavy titles in Asmodee Digital’s pipeline—including Terraforming Mars later this year and Gloomhaven in 2019—tabletop players and video gamers alike should be encouraged to see this release come out as well as it has.

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jprodgers
3 days ago
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I have Scythe and it's expansions, and I highly recommend it for the type of folks that like longer board games. I'm throwing this on my wishlist though, as I'll probably buy it once the digital version is under $10.
Somerville, MA
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Behold a DIY, Kid-Friendly Table Saw

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The “table saw” swaps the saw for a nibbler; here it is cutting corrugated cardboard in a manner much like the saw it replaces.

“Kid-friendly table saw” seems like either a contradiction, a fool’s errand, or a lawsuit waiting to happen; but this wooden table saw for kids actually fits the bill and shows off some incredible workmanship and attention to detail as well. The project works by using not a saw blade, but a nibbler attached to a power drill embedded inside.

Unsurprisingly, the key to making a “table saw” more kid-friendly was to remove the saw part. The nibbler will cut just about any material thinner than 3 mm, and it’s impossible for a child’s finger to fit inside it. The tool is still intended for supervised use, of course, but the best defense is defense in depth.

The workmanship on the child-sized “table saw” is beautiful, with even the cutting fence and power switch replicated. It may not contain a saw, but it works in a manner much like the real thing. The cutting action itself is done by an economical nibbler attachment, which is a small tool with a slot into which material is inserted. Inside the slot, a notched bar moves up and down, taking a small bite of any material with every stroke. Embedding this into the table allows for saw-like cutting of materials such as cardboard and thin wood.

The image gallery is embedded below and shows plenty of details about the build process and design, along with some super happy looking kids.

DIY table saws come in all kinds of variations. We’ve seen a high-quality micro table saw and another micro build that embeds a Dremel tool, but this is certainly the first one we’ve seen that can boast being kid-friendly.

[via Reddit]





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jprodgers
5 days ago
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Somerville, MA
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1 public comment
StunGod
5 days ago
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This is fantastic.
Portland, Oregon, USA, Earth

Progressives Get What They Want in Massachusetts

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Representative Mike Capuano was hoping that Massachusetts voters would opt for his decades of experience over the tantalizing gleam of a fresh face.

They didn’t.

Just over an hour after polls closed on Tuesday night, the nine-term Democrat with a robust progressive voting record, suddenly conceded to his uber-progressive challenger, Boston City Council member Ayanna Pressley. "Clearly the district wanted a lot of change,” Capuano said sadly to a quiet room full of supporters. “We’ve done everything we could do to get this thing done...I’m sorry it didn’t work out, but this is life.”

It wasn’t that Capuano had done anything wrong, said the people I spoke with, he just couldn’t offer what Pressley could. “Capuano took this dead serious and ran a perfect race,” Mary Anne Marsh, a Boston-based Democratic strategist, said in an interview, but “it’s clear that voters are looking for a very different kind of change to go to Washington.” Voters are angry, she said, and they want candidates with “fire in their belly” who can represent them, and boldly stand up to the policies of the Trump administration.

In the most recent poll taken, Pressley trailed Capuano by 13 points, but by the end of Tuesday evening, she led by 18. The win is perhaps the most powerful evidence yet that having progressive bona fides isn’t enough in 2018. Progressive voters want fresh faces. They want conversations about systemic racism and intersectionality. Most importantly, they want their candidates to have the “lived experience” of being nonwhite or non-male in the America—and on Tuesday, they got it.

Pressley, a 44-year-old African American woman, brought Capuano his first challenge in the state’s Seventh District in nearly two decades. The two Democrats didn’t diverge much on the issues; both were staunch advocates for Medicare for all, gun control, and abortion rights. And the areas where they did disagree were mostly symbolic: Pressley supports legislation to abolish ICE, and Capuano doesn’t. She’s refused corporate PAC money (a mostly hollow gesture) while he hasn’t, and she’s condemned Capuano’s support for a “Blue Lives Matter” bill, which would strengthen punishment for assaulting a police officer. But while Pressley herself has acknowledged that there isn’t much policy daylight between them, she says that’s not the point. The race, for her, was about perspective and representation.

The district, which encompasses roughly half of Boston, is solidly blue, with a majority non-white population. Pressley, the first African American woman ever elected to the Boston City Council, said she ran to represent the people who haven’t been heard—and throughout the campaign has emphasized issues on which she says she offers a unique perspective, like economic inequality, criminal justice reform, and structural racism. “These are issues I’ve been able to champion because of my lived experience,” she told WBUR in May. “Those are not theoretical to me.”

Pressley has been compared to Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who won her June primary in another major upset in New York’s 14th District after challenging progressive Representative Joe Crowley from the left. But Pressley’s election on Tuesday was in some ways more impressive. While Ocasio-Cortez mostly managed to escape Crowley’s attention and turned out fewer than 16,000 votes in the June primary election, Pressley won 56,000 votes—with strong opposition from Capuano from the get-go.

Pressley’s candidacy, then, is an even more powerful example of a broader trend, said Quentin James, the founder and executive director of Collective PAC, which works to elect African Americans to political office. “This is very much a continuation of a generational power transition in the Democratic Party,” James told The Atlantic. “What we’re seeing is a wave of candidates who are very comfortable making folks uncomfortable if it means we get to solutions that are gonna make things equitable.” These candidates include Georgia gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams, who structured her campaign around minority empowerment; Andrew Gillum, who won the Florida Democratic gubernatorial primary last week by emphasizing minority voter turnout; and Kerri Harris, a 38-year old veteran and openly gay woman of color offering a primary challenge to Democrat Tom Carper in Delaware.

Some might criticize this strategy as appealing to “identity politics,” but that doesn’t make it bad, said Saikat Chakrabarti, founder of the Justice Democrats, a progressive group advocating for candidates who pledge not to take corporate PAC money. “People try to do this false division between identity versus policy…but [they’re] inextricably linked,” he said. Pressley “was running on this bold progressive vision, and because of her identity she was believable on it.”

Of course, trading out tried-and-true progressive voices for new, inexperienced ones is always a risk—especially when the House majority hangs in the balance. “The trade off in this election was a guy who had some clout, and voters chose to go with a new face, somebody who could make a claim that she could represent people in the district who hadn’t been represented before,” said Robert Boatright, a political science professor at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. Can Democrats retake the House with so many brand-new faces? It’s a risk they’ll carry into November and beyond—but it’s one progressives say they’re ready for.

“People have been [asking] about when will the big populist progressive movement happen,” said Chakrabarti. “I think this is the year it’s gonna happen…we’re gonna see a whole host of bold, radical changes in a very short period of time.”

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jprodgers
15 days ago
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I voted for her because she isn't an old white man that's been in DC for decades. I don't want my politicians knowing that system, I want that old system to be replaced and I'm proud to have Pressley represent me. If she was part of the SDA then she'd have my full support, but this is a great start.
Somerville, MA
rclatterbuck
14 days ago
This is the kind of primary that I don't know if I would vote in. Seeing minimal policy differences between the two candidates, and not being exposed to their stylistic differences during the campaign, means I don't really have a preference. That might be different if I were in the district and knew anything about either candidate. The general election is another matter, of course. Even in an uncontested district, I'm out there voting.
jprodgers
14 days ago
For me there is a strong distinction, as it sends a very clear message that we want something more than what the status quo has been giving us. Pressley has been in public office and she has a passion and viewpoint that I'm significantly more interested in seeing, even if they vote the same on every bill.
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The Astonishing Inheritance Figures That Sustain the Black-White Wealth Gap

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The numbers are staggering: White Americans with a college degree are on average three times as wealthy as black Americans with the same credential, and in families where the head of the household is employed, white families have 10 times the wealth of black ones. One estimate on the conservative end suggested that this wealth gap could take two centuries to close.

And the thing about wealth, says Tatjana Meschede, a researcher at the Institute on Assets and Social Policy at Brandeis University, is that it’s “sticky”: It tends to stay with a family. That has serious repercussions for how much money people accumulate over the course of their lives, regardless of whether they attend college—something that is usually thought to make a significant difference financially.

A forthcoming study from Meschede and Joanna Taylor, also a researcher at Brandeis, in the American Journal of Economics and Sociology, makes the point clearly. Building on a 2017 study of theirs that examined wealth accumulation among college graduates—as well as “intergenerational financial transfers,” like when a parent helps a recent college grad out with rent, or, say, gives her $1,000 a month to spend on whatever she pleases—the two looked specifically at how family inheritances, which are usually larger and tend to come all at once, factor into building and maintaining wealth.

The two researchers focused specifically on inheritances among families where at least one parent has a college degree. They looked at families like this in order to test the notion that higher education is some great equalizer.

The differences that they found between black and white families were stark. “Among college-educated black families, about 13 percent get an inheritance of more than $10,000, as opposed to about 41 percent of white, college-educated families,” Taylor said in a release announcing the new research. More specifically, on average, white families that receive such an inheritance receive over $150,000 from the previous generation, whereas that figure is under $40,000 for black families.

Meschede and Taylor focused on inheritances of more than $10,000 because, they say, these qualify as “transformative” assets—meaning, they could significantly alter the course of a life. As Mark Huelsman, a policy analyst at Demos, an advocacy group, tweeted earlier this week after seeing Meschede and Taylor’s study, “the average family inheritance to a white college grad can pay off the average undergrad debt balance”—more than $30,000—“and have enough left over for a 20 percent down [payment] on a $575,000 home.” (And that’s if they have student debt to begin with.)

That head start on wealth provides lifelong momentum, Taylor told me in an interview. The median wealth held by black families with a college degree and student loans by the time the head of household is 65 years old, she said, is about $61,000, versus roughly $422,000 for white families under the same circumstances.

Getting a college degree can, in some cases, help close the income gap—as in, annual earnings—and, as I have written, can do wonders for socioeconomic mobility. But the enduring legacy of slavery, and centuries of de jure and de facto segregation have led to a wealth gap that is practically insurmountable. As my colleague Ta-Nehisi Coates wrote in 2014, the wealth gap “puts a number on something we feel but cannot say—that American prosperity was ill-gotten and selective in its distribution.”

There have been proposals, including systems of reparations such as baby bonds for black families that are scaled to family wealth, to get kids started on an equal level. Those ideas seem to be on the right track—a college degree alone certainly can’t make up the difference.

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jprodgers
61 days ago
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This, exactly this. If you work hard and build up you can make it a little bit of the ways up the wealth gap, maybe help out your kids, but you aren't going to be rich unless you were born into it or you are very lucky.
Somerville, MA
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